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Wednesday, December 15

  1. msg Fem. anthro. response message posted Fem. anthro. response This was a great topic and I was dissappointed you got to it before I did :) In your last paragrap…
    Fem. anthro. response
    This was a great topic and I was dissappointed you got to it before I did :)
    In your last paragraph you mention that epidemiology overlooks cultural significance in data. I think this is an extremely important and influencial point in public health research, planning, implementation and evaluation. I think (although your post is very good as is) some examples or more elaboration on this point would have made your post stronger. Feminist anthropology is also important in terms of international issues regarding women's reproductive health and the subject of rights regarding choice.
    11:13 am
  2. msg Re: Feminist Anthropology message posted Re: Feminist Anthropology I like that you mentioned the roll women have played in their own situation by not supporting the e…
    Re: Feminist Anthropology
    I like that you mentioned the roll women have played in their own situation by not supporting the empowerment of their fellow women. Also, great point about the influence of capitalism. Makes me interested in looking into this more regarding the differences in male / female nature and nurture and how those differences play out in the oppression of women throughout human history.
    11:03 am
  3. page Social capital theory edited ... In the context of public health in America it seems that social capital theory refers to the g…
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    In the context of public health in America it seems that social capital theory refers to the government’s role in the provision of resources based on a naturally resulting beneficiary relation involving a sense of ‘social’ trust with its citizens. One other way to view the text definition is the norms and networks that enable individuals to act collectively. (Woolcock and Narayan, 2000). Essentially social capital promotes the idea that the norms have always been accepted and should continue to be accepted in order for the benefit of all involved based on established understandings between the parties involved. In an attempt to support this idea, “Social capital has been defined as those features of social organization-such as the extent of interpersonal trust between citizens, norms of reciprocity, and density of civic associations-that facilitate cooperation for mutual benefit.” (Kawachi et. al, 1999).
    Social capital theory is applied in a variety of ways in a variety of areas or professions. In a way, social capital is a binary relationship in which two elements are constantly interacting with each other in order to promote development and progress and the ‘social trust’ factor that naturally goes with it. Without one element, the effects of the other are in essence, nullified. The two elements must work ‘collectively’ in order for the effect to be noticed. Going back to the public health context, there is a cost and benefit relationship that primarily dictates the interactions between government entities and American citizens and there are certain standards that both are expected to meet in order for disputes to be settled and the advantage of opportunities to be taken. These mutual interactions between the government and the general public allow and promote development and progress economically and in more other ways - which is very critical for changes in the U.S. healthcare infrastructure. “Social capital has been claimed to be important for the enhancement of government performance and the functioning of democracy, for the prevention of crime and delinquency, and, more recently, for the maintenance of population health.” (Kawachi et. al, 1999)
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    Narayan, 2000).
    I believe that this quote was a good choice to use for my chosen topic because it effectively conveys the message that in general, through our networks, through the people we meet by establishing relationships with others on a daily bases through various encounters, we humans tend to share thoughts with others alike. Our views are shared by people we are around everyday. In a public health context, this quote can effectively help understand how people communicate with each other to bring about the desired overall behavior. Taking into account today's highly criticized and known poor healthcare infrastructure social capital helps people come together in an effort to bring about the necessary change so that everyone involved can have access to the right of receiving quality treatment for their health related issues. Though this involves a lot of politics and though there are many different views and perspectives, social capital can help establish and maintain a sense of uniform balance in various aspects.

    References:
    Woolcock, M., & Narayan, D. (2000). Social Capital: Implications for Development Theory, Research , and Policy.The World Bank Research Observer, 15(2), 228-229.
    (view changes)
    8:34 am
  4. msg Tailoring by stage vs other factors message posted Tailoring by stage vs other factors I did see your edits, which were good. I did want to point out to readers of this post that tailori…
    Tailoring by stage vs other factors
    I did see your edits, which were good. I did want to point out to readers of this post that tailoring can be on any characteristic or factor (cultural, gender, level of any behavioral construct, stage, age, history, etc). The idea here is that by personalizing an intervention to the individual's own situation, there will be a bigger impact on behavior change.
    8:30 am

Tuesday, December 14

  1. msg a little more detail... message posted a little more detail... Thanks for the feedback! I have added a paragraph that I think meets the needs that you specified. …
    a little more detail...
    Thanks for the feedback! I have added a paragraph that I think meets the needs that you specified. Thanks again :)
    12:46 pm

Monday, December 13

  1. page Natural helper models edited ... Audrey Wilcox Natural Helper Models ... the researcher. Their involvement leads to an inf…
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    Audrey Wilcox
    Natural Helper Models
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    the researcher. Their involvement leads to an informative education process andBeing involved will allow actionthe receiver to be informed from a peers view and would bring about an effective social change. Primarily,
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    a viable approach”approach to health
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    the grassroots levellevel" (Bergstrom, 1982).
    Moreover, the natural helper model is very strategic as it exploits “having representation from each network to provide support and education to individuals that are of similar backgrounds” (Tessaro et al., 2000) and allows health information to be transposed through everyday discussion and interaction. These strategies are extremely relevant in the primary and secondary stages of prevention of public health and health promoters have “realized that a partnership with natural helpers can interweave formal services with the help provided by a community support system” (Eng & Parker, 2002, p. 140). For instance, a community-based, childhood obesity prevention program in two Houston low-income neighborhoods was designed on the basis of input from community members. Stemming from trust, the principals of community engagement and translational research helped health practitioners and researchers build a strong community partnerships and community ownership to ensure the significance of the intervention was a good fit in the context of the community (Correa, et al., 2010). This was achieved by engaging and listening to the communities while allowing the communities to prioritize the initiatives. Houston’s pilot initiative demonstrated progress in improving the health of the community by disseminating evidence-based practices through community engagement (Correa, et al., 2010). Likewise, research has found that a “community-based and participatory model may require a significant degree of flexibility from health educators” (Bishop, Earp, Eng, & Lynch, 2002) that is usually “culturally tailored” (Scott, 2009). For this reason, community building has to be inclusive of the psychosocial factors of the individuals needing help to be able to improve the perceived effectiveness of resources and the individual’s ability to cope and influence the outcome expectation. This can be attached to the construct of self-efficacy in the social cognitive theory. Accordingly, there is opportunity for many different models and theories to be used in conjunction with the NHM. It is contingent on the community and the community needs to utilize the appropriate models. Therefore, the NHM has to be “aware of behaviors and attitudes that reflect cultural norms when developing interventions” (Tessaro et al., 2000).
    Lastly, the NHM has recognized another type of helper and that is the Lay Health Advisors (LHA). Although a slight difference exist between the two, each brings value for community development by ways of the social action model. For instance, the level of knowledge for LHA is greater with reference to health and resources (Bishop, Earp, Eng, & Lynch, 2002) and their realm of labor differs (Scott, 2009). With these abilities, the “LHA approaches are guided by the assumption that individuals behavior is influenced by social groups to which they belong and from which they derive their social identity”(Earp, et al., 1997). This can leave the individual with an imbalance of power and privilege . However, operating as a paid worker by an agency, the LHA “operates to distribute health promoting information and assistance to particular groups” (Scott, 2009) to influence change through empowerment. Nonetheless, the “LHA may or may not be part of a targeted community and is likely to be chosen according to criteria set by the governing agency, not community members” (Scott, 2009). Still coined as natural helpers, LHA are generally from the healthcare setting and they are paraprofessionals that are trained to carry out health care services normally performed by a professional among their existing social networks (Bishop, Earp, Eng, & Lynch, 2002). Examples are “health aids, community health advisors, peer educators, and outreach workers” (Eng, Parker, & Harlan, 1997). Additionally, in the collaboration efforts, they provide “linkage between the healthcare system and their own community” and serve to “strengthen these relations” (Bishop, Earp, Eng, & Lynch, 2002). Most importantly, they are influential resources that are activist in the promotion of health and prevention strategies.
    (view changes)
    5:48 pm
  2. msg Suggestions message posted Suggestions I saw the changes you put in there yesterday. Think of ommission bias as "do no harm". Pe…
    Suggestions
    I saw the changes you put in there yesterday. Think of ommission bias as "do no harm". People prefer to not act (and let harm happen on its own) rather than act and potentially be the causer of harm. What does this mean for health behaviors with potential (real or imagined) risk? Vaccination would be a great example. I still recommend a pubmed search for simple health studies that have looked at omission bias as a factor in health decision making.
    4:14 pm
  3. msg Theories message posted Theories Really, you could have a demonstration project that integrated any of the theories. I think there m…
    Theories
    Really, you could have a demonstration project that integrated any of the theories. I think there might be a misunderstanding in the above comment, in that this is not a theory, so dont feel obligated to be able to answer that one. Perhaps providing a few peer reviewed examples from pubmed of published demonstration projects in health might be valuable to avoid confusion about what this is?
    3:22 pm
  4. page Theory of oppression (deleted) edited
    3:18 pm
  5. page Theory of self esteem (deleted) edited
    3:18 pm

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